Diabetes mellitus type 2 causes a range of disorders macrovascualr, microvascular and neuropathic. Macrovascualr ailments like coronary heart disease, peripheral vascular disease etc. microvascular conditions like retinal, renal problems and neuropathic conditions. Patients with diabetes are condemned for life and have to depend on insulin or oral medications to regulate their insulin production or control their blood glucose levels. Pathophysiology of diabetes actually means insulin resistance. In this condition the body cells are unable to cognizance of the presence of insulin in the blood. Insulin production is not the major problem but its failure to take action is.
Other contributing factors are weakened beta cell functions, the failure of the pancreas to release insulin in the presence of hyperglycemic stimulus and increased hepatic glucose creation. Imbalance in the quantity of insulin present in the body is also a condition that occurs when diabetes strikes. Insulin production is also affected by other illness or medications taken to treat them. Cancer patients who received HCT or Hematopoietic Cell transplants are more than likely to develop diabetes mellitus type 2. Patients undergoing radiation therapy for cancer are more likely to develop diabetes type2.
Diabetes is easier to treat when the body is still producing some amounts of insulin. Compared to type 1 diabetes type 2 diabetes symptoms are milder and hence go unnoticed for prolonged periods. In type 1 diabetes the symptoms are alarming like ketoacidosis and diabetic coma. However, if diabetes type 2 if ignored and left untreated can result in serious conditions that may include renal failure, blindness, arterial disease, heart disease, and slow healing of wounds.
Diabetes mellitus is commonly found in middle to older age group individuals. However, it is also observed frequently in adolescents and young adults. This is due to the availability of advanced screening methods that are available these days. The exact origin of diabetes mellitus type 2 is still not known. Viral infection, genetics, lifestyle, eating disorders, and obesity are some of the commonly blamed factors. Sometimes sudden trauma or surgery is also known to cause diabetes. Diabetes is also caused as a reaction to drugs and prolonged use of steroids.
Diabetes mellitus almost always accompanies conditions like elevated cholesterol (hyperlipidemia), hypertension, obesity and other metabolic conditions like Syndrome X etc. supplementary factors that influence the existence of diabetes include inactive lifestyle, aging, and wrong eating habits.
Proper nutrition and regular exercise can often delay the onset of pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus type 2. Diabetes mellitus type 2 has no ascertained cure; it is an advancing and lasting disease. Nevertheless most of the previously appointed effects of the condition can be delayed and sometimes avoided by treatment. The treatments have two main goals: reduction of mortality and associated sickness or diabetic complications, and maintenance or improvement of quality of life. The first goal can be achieved through glycemic control and the second goal is often achieved by education and medications.